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How Does a Semiconductor Work?

Semiconductor devices are the basic components of all electronics. Modern technology and all the advancements that we see and enjoy today are made possible by semiconductors. Complex and integrated circuits, chips, transistors, and a wide range of sensors are built with the help of semiconductor materials.

Silicon is the most common semiconductor because it is used in a variety of electronic devices. Other semiconductors include silicon carbide, germanium, and gallium arsenide, among many others.

Every material has its own set of advantages and benefits in terms of performance, cost-efficiency, speed, temperature tolerance and quality.

What is a Semiconductor?

A semiconductor is a material that communicates only half of the current. It has a partial conductivity, which means it is less conductive than the conductors and more conductive than the insulators.

Any smart device like mobile phones and computers make use of an extensive collection of semiconductors, mainly silicon, which in turn, is covered with billions of transistors and solid semiconductors.

A common explanation of the semiconductors is to think of them as a poorly built bridge that can only close the halfway and needs the traveller to jump the remaining way. Whereas, an insulator is a bridge that cannot close and make it impossible for any of the travellers to go through.

What is Doping?

The properties of semiconductors can be modified and adapted according to the requirement by adding impurities in a small quantity through the process of doping. The results of doping are highly dependent on the type of impurities added in the semiconductor and the concentration of the impurity. The way of the electrical current through a semiconductor is regulated via doping.

In conductors, electors have the ability to carry the current and act as the charge carrier. Whereas, in semiconductors, both electors and holes act as the charge carries. Regulation of the doping allows the charge carrier to be adapted to electron or hole-based.

How does a semiconductor work?

All the semiconductor materials like silicon, silicon carbide, and others have a unique characteristic — all of them have four electors in their outermost shell. These outermost electors can form covalent bonds with four other atoms to form crystal lattice structures.

The crystals have different forms and types. For example, diamond is produced if carbon semiconductor is used. Similarly, a silver metallic material can be formed with the usage of silicon.

Silicon can be found in abundance on Earth, and that is the reason why it is the most widespread semiconductor. Impure substance, like boron or gallium, is added in a small amount in the silicon crystal to make it unstable and allow the free movement of the electrons.

The free movement of electors is critical in having imbalanced electrons in the structure, which, in turn, generates a charge. The charge produced can be negative or positive, depending upon the quantity of the electros. The positive charge is caused when there are a very few electors, and negative charge is produced in the case of more electrons.

Properties of a Semiconductor

Different types of materials in a semiconductor contributes various qualities and properties to the device. The basic features of a semiconductor are:

  • A semiconductor should be able to conduct an only small amount of current.
  • It should neither be a very good or terrible conductor of electricity.
  • Properties of semiconductors can be adapted by adding or eliminating atoms.

The Manufacturing Process of Semiconductors

AOI solutions possess the expertise, technology, and skills required in the manufacturing of semiconductors via state-of-the-art technology to produce efficient and reliable semiconductors.

Throughout the process, the machines are kept clean and pure to avoid any damage to the end-products. Moreover, the chemicals used in the manufacturing of semiconductors are entirely pure. Experts and well-measured calculations control doping. Silicon wafers are also an essential part of the manufacturing process.

The manufacturing of semiconductors is conducted by AOI solutions in the following stages:

  1. Designing of the semiconductor function and ICs.
  2. Patterning for the development of circuit pattern.
  3. Wafer Fabrication for manufacturing an IC n silicon wafer.
  4. Device Formation is conducted to form an insulation layer for electric devices.
  5. Transistor Formation for developing transistors to regulate the flow of electrons.
  6. Metallization of devices like transistors to establish electronic circuit and wire bond inspection.
  7. Assembly and Testing ICs created through wafer fabrication are incorporated into the final packages. Extensive testing is conducted, along with wire bond inspection, to ensure the quality and reliability of the completed semiconductor.

The process mentioned above is implemented by AOI solutions to make sure excellent semiconductors are manufactured. Wire bond inspection is conducted to make the integration of the circuit strong and durable.

Overall, the quality of the semiconductors is ensured by using high-quality products, chemicals and modern technology. For more information about semiconductors, feel free to get in touch with our professional staff.

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